He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna (1907-13). His brief experiments with Futurism (1914) and Metaphysics (1918-20), followed by "Valori Plastici" and "Il Selvaggio", and participation in exhibitions of the Novecento Italiano, never stopped him creating works of great concentration. In them he revisited the themes of landscapes and still lifes, with an eye on Cezanne, Vermeer, Chardin and Corot, in an essentially tonal form of painting. He also produced some quite remarkable etchings. His solitary artistic research was seen by post-war critics as an example of method and consistency.